Science and knowledge developed and flourished in the Sassanid era along with other spheres, including literature. And in every field there were special people, special scientists. The greatest Ibn Kutayba in the field of history and literary studies, the most famous astrologer Abumuashshar Jafar ibn Muhammad Balkhi, Abubakr Narshahi is one of the most famous historians of the Samanid period, Abunasr Farabi, Abu Ali ibn Sina in the field of poetry and medicine this list can go on and on.

In the era of the USSR, science in the newly formed Tajikistan developed as Soviet science. The initial stage of development of science in Tajikistan coincided with a turbulent period of revolutionary transformations occurring in the years of 1917-1924. Formation of the State University of Central Asia played a huge role for the future expansion and development of scientific activity in the region.

At the second stage of reforms and transformations (1924-1932), a number of scientific expeditions were organized, the purpose of which was to study the production potential of the republic. These expeditions played a very important role in the development of science in Tajikistan.

The third stage (1932-1941) covers the period of creation of the branch of USSR’s Academy of Sciences in Tajikistan.

In the period before the World War II, the problems of developing grammar and providing school textbooks were solved, first based on the Latin script, and later in the Cyrillic alphabet, preparing everything for the transition to the new alphabet.

The qualitatively new fourth stage in the history of science of Tajikistan marked the transformation of the Tajik branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences into the Tajik SSR Academy of Sciences in 1941, at which were established three institutes of natural sciences (geology, botany, zoology) and one humanitarian institute (history, language and literature). Despite the difficulties of wartime, great attention was paid to improve the scientific institutions and their compliance with the requirements of the national economy of the republic. In 1944, a graduate school was opened at the branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences, which began the training of scientific highly qualified personnel.

In 1948, Tajik State University was established, what made a huge contribution to the education and preparation of scientific and pedagogical personnel for the republic.

The fifth stage was connected with the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, established on April 14, 1951, the first president of which was Sadriddin Aini.

Sadriddin Ayni (Sadriddin Sayidmurodzoda Aini) — founder of modern Soviet-Tajik literature, writer, scientist, academician and first President of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan (1951-1954), Honored Scientist of the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, Honorary Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic, National Hero of the Republic of Tajikistan (1997).

Ustod (teacher, master) Ayni was a progressive intellectual who has devoted his whole life and activity to the service of his nation. From the first days of the formation of the Republic of Tajikistan, he connected his fate with it and rendered invaluable service for the development of the language and literature, science, education and culture of the Tajik nation.

Mirzo Tursunzade, recalling those fateful times, wrote the following:

And the teacher became the flame and light,

He guided his people through the darkest night.

The hero of Tajikistan, ustod Sadriddin Aini, has lived his whole life selflessly and with full dedication to what he was doing. His life passed in endless struggle and clashes on the way to the revival of life, history, culture and civilization of the Tajik nation.

The title of alloma (mentor, teacher) to refer to ustod Ayni was first used by the famous thinker Said Nafisi after acquaintance with Ayni’s book “Namunai adabiyoti tojik”(Samples of Tajik literature). Nafisi wrote: “The compiler of this book is the modern alloma Sadriddin Aini, the noble and famous literary figure of our region and an example of pride for our language in Turkestan”.

The role of this great scientist, poet, writer and thinker in the formation and development of the modern Tajik language, literature and Tajik statehood is truly enormous.

The life and literary heritage of S. Aini was widely and comprehensively studied and researched by domestic and foreign scholars. His works have been translated into 12 languages of the world and scientists from all around the globe are using his studies in their own researches.

Regardless of the fact that the life, scientific and social activities of Sadriddin Aini has been studied by researchers, many books, monographs and articles about him has been published, his works have been translated into many languages of the world, but there are still too many facts about his life and work remain unknown to this day. This problem may interest scientists. His creative heritage is enormous and much still has to be told about this great and wise man.

After the formation of the Academy of Sciences in the republic, special attention was paid to the foundation and development of the republican scientific fund. After founding of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, scientific researches gained a huge boost in research institutions and higher educational institutions. New scientific institutions, like the Institute of Seismology, the Institute of Soil Science, Land Reclamation, and Irrigation were created at the Academy of Sciences.

It needs to be emphasized that alloma Bobodzhon Gafurov made a big contribution in the establishment of the Tajik State University (1948) and the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan (1951).

With the effective support of B. Gafurov, a group of authors for the first time published the book of history of Tajik people in three volumes and five books, and later in the years of 1963-1965 they were published in the Nauka publishing house in Moscow. Academician Bobojon Gafurov is the author of almost 400 works and articles on the history of the Tajik people and world history, which were published in various publishing houses around the world. One of his works — the book «Tajiks», which has important scientific and historical significance, has become a representative and a true reflection of the Tajik nation.

In his Message to the Majlisi Oli of the Republic of Tajikistan, the Leader of the Nation, President of the Republic of Tajikistan, esteemed Emomali Rahmon, after emphasizing the importance of the book “Tajiks” for the national self-consciousness, and in order to study the glorious history of the Tajik people more deeply, instructed the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan to print this outstanding work of Bobodzhon Gafurov at the expense of the Fund of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan and before the 30th anniversary of State Independence present one copy to every family on behalf of the Head of State.

In accordance with paragraph 1 of the Order of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan No. AP-1347 dated February 6, 2020 for celebrating the 30th anniversary of State Independence of the Republic of Tajikistan, Bobodzhon Gafurov’s book “Tajiks” will be published and presented to each family on behalf of President of the Republic of Tajikistan and this fact is a matter of pride and support.

Studying and writing about the rich history of the nation is under the strict control of the Leader of the nation, and in all his speeches and messages he expresses his scientifically based views and suggestions on this topic. At the same time, he directs the country’s scientists to the correct knowledge of history, propaganda of the spiritual heritage, folk traditions and customs that has been preserved in the historical memory of the Tajik people for many centuries.

Undoubtedly, the book is the most valuable spiritual asset and for all educated people in the world it’s considered a precious pearl, a source of knowledge, an mean of training and education, inherited from generation to generation. The world community has known the Tajik people since ancient times thanks to its science, literature and art, which they managed to preserve and convey to our days precisely thanks to the book and written language. In other words, knowledge is a door for approaching to the very essence of reality and getting into understanding the universe. And the key to this door is in the book, knowledge, school, which first depends on the will and desire of the student to receive knowledge, and then on the professionalism and responsibility of the teacher.

First of all, a book is a great power. This is the greatest miracle created by man, which has absorbed all the knowledge about life and the world, the whole history of the formation of the human mind, all the hardships and vicissitudes of history and the experience of the people and nations of the whole world. The book is the most powerful weapon for the further development of the intellectual potential of mankind.

The science in the Republic of Tajikistan was at a relatively high level before the collapse of the USSR and the socio-political and socio-economic crisis that occurred because of the events of the early 90s. A strong material and technical base for conducting scientific research has been created in the institutes of the Academy of Sciences, other research institutions and higher educational institutions of the republic, the scientific personnel in many areas of science have been trained, and higher educational institutions have been formed. All kind of researches were conducted in collaboration with the institutes of the USSR Academy of Sciences and other research centers.

Rahimzoda Ramazon Hamro – Minister for Internal Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan, Colonel General of Police, Doctor of Juridical Science, Winner of the Muhammad Osimi Social Science Award, current member of the World Academy of Collective Security Sciences

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