The knowledge lights a fire bright in hearts,

And thee will be protected for all and once.

The greatest representatives of history and literature of all times were calling science the basis of honor, awareness of being, and the main source of society development, respect and veneration towards worthy people.

These, full of deep meaning words sounded in the very thoughtful and informative speech of Leader of the Nation, Founder of Peace and National Unity, the President of the Republic of Tajikistan Emomali Rahmon at the meeting with the scientists of our country on March 18, 2020 at the Borbad Palace.

The Head of State during all of his meetings, speeches at the scientific and cultural events always emphasizes the worthy contribution of the world-famous scientists and thinkers of the Tajik nation, the rich ancient creative, literary and historical heritage of the civilized Tajik nation, putting them in the same place, position and role with the most distinguished scientists of the world.

The very presence of science in the society and in the system of statehood contributes to the development and prosperity of all aspects and spheres of life, has a main role in the character formation, brings new inventions and discoveries and establishes innovations. Exactly thanks to the development of science and it’s prosperity in the society help to solve a big range of political and economical problems, strengthens creation of useful people for society. The very colorful example to this statement – is the experience of statehood in several developed countries of the world.

The Oxford Dictionary gives the following definition to the word “science”: “The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment”.

Science – is a human activity, the purpose and content of which is is enlightenment of the world as a single system based on logical thinking and experience.

One of the most ancient, close and accurate definitions, that is still being used in the modern world, belongs to Aristotle who considered scientific knowledge a combination of chosen knowledge, which in terms of logic and reason is worthy of explanation.

Science is a continuing effort to discover and increase knowledge through research. Scientists make observations, record measurable data related to their observations, and analyze the information at hand to construct theoretical explanations of the phenomenon involved.

The methods involved in scientific research include making a hypothesis and conducting experiments to test the hypothesis under controlled conditions. In this process, scientists publish their work so other scientists can repeat the experiment and further strengthen the reliability of results.

Besides, by saying or using the word “science” people mean a complex system of knowledge and scientific views on the constitution of the universe. Most of the time research or analytical terms are used to reflect scientific professional activities.In the past (ancient) centuries, our ancestors sought to solve the issues of training, education, the formation of a scientific worldview and enlightenment of the world. Our ancestors also greatly respected knowledge and wisdom. According to the historical source of “the Avesta”, science and wisdom had their own god named Ahura-Mazda. People prayed to this god, so he grants them with literate and wise children. Ahura-Mazda was the source of knowledge and wisdom, and Ahriman – the source of ignorance and foolishness.

And of course, the followers of  Ahura-Mazda were pursuing science and knowledge. And because of that the followers of Ahura-Mazda were obliged to help everyone who desired and strove for knowledge. According to the studies of “Avesta”, there are two types of knowledge. The first – is hereditary knowledge, and the second – is obtained knowledge. Representatives of the Iranian race sang and respected both types.

The main goal of the upbringing philosophy was to teach and educate boys as the useful and virtuous member of society. It is clearly shown in the Yasna (veneration) – first part of “Avesta”: “Oh, Ahura-Mazda, grant me a child, who will be able to fulfill his duty towards my home, my city, my country and help my fair-minded king”. Or it is also mentioned in “Avesta”: “…-Oh, Ahura-Mazda, grant me a wise and clever child, so he can become a worthy member of society and will treat his duties responsibly becomes righteous, courageous and respected person, will be helping others, grant me a son who will be able to strive for success, happiness of his family, his city and his country”.

Also, there is an appeal to the Zoroastrians in “Avesta”, that they must responsibly study sciences, discharge their duties, and absent from rash and hasty acts and deeds.

Beginning the development of science and higher education by our ancestors dates back to the Sassanid era of the beginning of the 3rd century AD. During this period, it was traditional to receive higher and religious education, study philosophical sciences, natural sciences and medicine among the nobility and the clergy of those times.

At the end of the reign of the Ashkanid dynasty and the beginning of the reign of the Sassanids, Greek and Indian science and enlightenment spread in this territory. Especially during the Khusrav of Soson era (531-579 AD), scientific and fiction books were translated from Greek and Indian languages into Persian-Tajik language.

During this period, the Gundi Shapur Academy, established by Shapur the First, was especially popular among the representatives of the Iranian race. This institution of higher education was opened in 550 CE. The main work of the institution conducting research works on philosophy and medical science. Anushervon was constantly thinking about expanding the Academy, and for this purpose he sent his personal physician Barzuya to India to study medical science. Barzuya brought medical and fiction books from India, including the very famous book “Kalila and Dimna”, chess and Indian doctors. During this period, a group of Greek scientists arrived to the Gundi Shapur Academy for permanent work. The involvement of Persian, Greek and Indian scholars, scientists and doctors had a great influence on the process of teaching and translating books into the Persian-Tajik language. The basis of literature, the foundations of law, economics, history, mathematics, astronomy, logic, medicine, pharmaceuticals, theology, plant science, music, zoology, etc. was taught at the Gundi Shapur Medical Academy.The library of the Academy was equipped with almost all kind of scientific and fiction books. The educational institution held scientific meetings and exams. Anushervon mostly personally participated in those meetings and exams. Even after being captured by the Arabs, Academy provided good service to the representatives of the Iranian race for several centuries. Not only Iranians, but also Arabs, Indians and Greeks studied medical science, inside the walls of this great educational institution.

The rich heritage of our ancestors, which has a worldwide educational and upbringing significance, touched upon the problems of studying science, upbringing and ethics. Vivid examples of what was said above are given in the ethical and didactic work “Kabus-name” by Unsurulmaali Kaykavus, in which a separate chapter is devoted to astrology and geometry. This chapter says that: “Oh, my son, you must know and remember that if you are an astronomer, strive to work hard on mathematical science, because the science of scientific predictions is very vast …”. “…эй писар, бидон ва огоњ бош, ки агар мунаљљим бошї, љањд кун, то бештар ранљи хеш дар илми риёзї бари…” (Ey pisar, bidon va ogoh bosh, ki agar munajjim boshii, jahd kun, to beshtar ranji khesh dar ilmi riyozi barii…).

One of the very famous Persian-Tajik thinkers Mavlono Jalal-ad-Din Muhammad Balkhi said the following words about significance and importance of science:

You want to be happy and cheerful?

Wherever you go, be cherished and useful?

Live righteously, be clean and study science,

Be a crown, leave wisdom for your children.

In fact, the study of sciences not only gives a person a profession and a good and high position in the society, but it can also make him famous, revered and noble, science brings light, new strength, delicate taste and good mood to the heart and essence of a person and his life.

The Leader of the nation at the meeting with the intellectuals of our country emphasized:“For centuries, the Tajik people have been particularly respectful of science, education and upbringing, throughout the history of mankind have given the world many outstanding personalities and geniuses who have made a huge contribution to the development of the world science. Especially in the era of the Samanids, along with literature and crafts, natural science also was also greatly developed, the legacy of famous Tajik scientists in the following centuries exploited world fame”.

The meaning of life – is science

A lot of treasures lay upon that land.

The spirit and body are weak without science,

Only by wisdom the barriers will you break.

The science is the evidence of a deep mind,

A lot of great things with science can you make.

Regarding the social significance of science, the German philosopher and Immanuel Kant said the following words: “…from the inside science has real intrinsic value, as part of wisdom. But even in such robe, science is very necessary for wisdom (prudence).”

In fact, in a society where there are a large number of prudent, competent and comprehensively developed individuals, work, life and the existence of people take the appropriate social form and attractiveness. There’s no doubt, that cultured and educated people are always being respected and esteemed by others and attract everyone’s attention.

Rahimzoda Ramazon Hamro – Minister for Internal Affairs of the Republic of Tajikistan, Colonel General of Police, Doctor of Juridical Science, Winner of the Muhammad Osimi Social Science Award, current member of the World Academy of Collective Security Sciences.

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